Angular HttpClient Tutorial & Example

In this Angular HttpClient Tutorial & Examples guide, we show you how to use HttpClient to make HTTP requests like GET & POST, etc. to the back end server. The Angular HTTP client module is introduced in the Angular 4.3.  This new API is available in package @angular/common/http. It replaces the older HttpModule. The HTTP Client makes use of the RxJs Observables. The Response from the HttpClient is observable, hence it needs to be Subscribed. We will learn all these in this Tutorial.

Applies to: Angular 5 to the latest edition i.e. Angular 8, Angular 9. Angular 10

Using Angular HttpClient

The HttpClient is a separate model in Angular and is available under the @angular/common/http package. The following steps show you how to use the HttpClient in an Angular app.

Import HttpClient Module in Root Module

We need to import it into our root module app.module. Also, we need to add it to the imports metadata array.

Import Required Module in Component/Service

Then you should import HttpClient the @angular/common/http in the component or service.

Inject HttpClient service

Inject the HttpClient service in the constructor.

Call the HttpClient.Get method

Use HttpClient.Get method to send an HTTP Request. The request is sent when we Subscribe to the get() method. When the response arrives map it the desired object and display the result.

What is Observable?

The Angular HTTPClient makes use of observable. Hence it is important to understand the basics of it

Observable help us to manage async data. You can think of Observables as an array of items, which arrive asynchronously over time.

The observables implement the observer design pattern, where observables maintain a list of dependents. We call these dependents as observers. The observable notifies them automatically of any state changes, usually by calling one of their methods.

Observer subscribes to an Observable. The observer reacts when the value of the Observable changes. An Observable can have multiple subscribers and all the subscribers are notified when the state of the Observable changes.

When an Observer subscribes to an observable, it needs to pass (optional) the three callbacks. next(),  error()  &  complete(). The observable invokes the next() callback, when it receives an value. When the observable completes it invokes the complete() callback. And when the error occurs it invokes the error() callback with details of error and subscriber finishes.

The Observables are used extensively in Angular. The new HTTPClient Module and Event system are all Observable based.

The Observables are proposed feature for the next version of Javascript. The Angular uses a Third-party library called Reactive Extensions or RxJs to implement the Observables. You can learn about RxJs from these RxJx tutorials

Observables Operators

Operators are methods that operate on an Observable and return a new observable. Each Operator modifies the value it receives. These operators are applied one after the other in a chain.

The RxJs provides several Operators, which allows you to filter, select, transform, combine and compose Observables. Examples of Operators are map, filter, take, merge, etc

How to use RxJs

The RxJs is a very large library. Hence Angular exposes a stripped-down version of Observables. You can import it using the following import statement

The above import imports only the necessary features. It does not include any of the Operators.

To use observables operators, you need to import them. The following code imports the map & catchError operators.


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HTTP GET

The HttpClient.get sends the HTTP Get Request to the API endpoint and parses the returned result to the desired type. By default, the body of the response is parsed as JSON. If you want any other type, then you need to specify explicitly using the observe & responseType options.

You can read more about Angular HTTP Get

Syntax

Options

under the options, we have several configuration options, which we can use to configure the request.

headers It allows you to add HTTP headers to the outgoing requests. 

observe The HttpClient.get method returns the body of the response parsed as JSON (or type specified by the responseType). Sometimes you may need to read the entire response along with the headers and status codes. To do this you can set the observe property to the response.

The allowed options are

  • a response which returns the entire response
  • body which returns only the body
  • events which return the response with events.

params Allows us to Add the URL parameters or Get Parameters to the Get Request

reportProgress This is a boolean property. Set this to true, if you want to get notified of the progress of the Get Request. This is a pretty useful feature when you have a large amount of data to download (or upload) and you want the user to notify of the progress.

responseType Json is the default response type. In case you want a different type of response, then you need to use this parameter. The Allowed Options are arraybuffer, blob, JSON, and text

withCredentials It is of boolean type. If the value is true then HttpClient.get will request data with credentials (cookies)

HTTP Post

The HttpClient.post() sends the HTTP POST request to the endpoint. Similar to the get(), we need to subscribe to the post() method to send the request. The post method parsed the body of the response as JSON and returns it. This is the default behavior. If you want any other type, then you need to specify explicitly using the observe & responseType options.

You can read Angular HTTP Post

The syntax of the HTTP Post is similar to the HTTP Get.

The following is an example of HTTP Post

HTTP PUT

The HttpClient.put() sends the HTTP PUT request to the endpoint. The syntax and usage are very similar to the HTTP POST method.

HTTP PATCH

The HttpClient.patch() sends the HTTP PATCH request to the endpoint. The syntax and usage are very similar to the HTTP POST method.

HTTP DELETE

The HttpClient.delete() sends the HTTP DELETE request to the endpoint. The syntax and usage are very similar to the HTTP GET method.

HttpClient Example

Now, We have a basic understanding of HttpClient model & observables, let us build an HttpClient example app.

Create a new Angular app

import HttpClientModule

In the app,module.ts import the HttpClientModule module as shown below. We also add it to the imports array

Component

Now, open the app.component.ts and copy the following code.

Import HTTPClient

HTTPClient is a service, which is a major component of the HTTP Module. It contains methods like GET, POST, PUT etc. We need to import it.

Repository Model

The model to handle our data.

Inject HttpClient

Inject the HttpClient service into the component. You can learn more about Dependency injection in Angular

Subscribe to HTTP Get

The GetRepos method, we invoke the get() method of the HttpClient Service.

The HttpClient.get method allows us to cast the returned response object to a type we require. We make use of that feature and supply the type for the returned value http.get<repos[]>

The get() method returns an observable. Hence we subscribe to it.

When we subscribe to any observable, we optionally pass the three callbacks. next(),  error()  &  complete(). In this example we pass only two callbacks next() & error().

Receive the Response

We receive the data in the next() callback. By default, the Angular reads the body of the response as JSON and casts it to an object and returns it back. Hence we can use directly in our app.

Handle the errors

We handle the errors in error callback.

Template

Finally, we display the list of GitHub Repos using the ngFor Directive

Summary

We learned how to create a simple HTTP Service in this tutorial. We also looked at the basics of Observables which is not extensively used in Angular

You can download the source code from this link

2 thoughts on “Angular HttpClient Tutorial & Example”

  1. Hi great article,

    Using Observable<HttpResponse<T>> with HttpClient, is tied to HttpResponse and needs .subscribe(x =>…) to be called in the rest of your code.
    This creates a tight coupling between the http layer and the rest of your code.

    There is an Angular library (angular-extended-http-client) which allows you to use HttpClient with strongly-typed callbacks.
    With this, you only deal with your Models in the rest of your code.

    https://github.com/VeritasSoftware/angular-http-client-ext

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