JavaScript Variables

A JavaScript variable is a storage for the data, where programs can store value or information. We must give a name to the variable. We can then refer to the variable in another part of the program. In this article, we learn how to declare a variable. Also, learn about the rules for naming the variable

What is JavaScript Variable

JavaScript variables are storage for data, where programs can store value. Basically, It’s an area of memory where JavaScript stores the data.

We usually assign a name to the memory. The programs can then use the variable name to identify the memory location. It makes the coding easier.

Variables in JavaScript

In JavaScript, a variable can store just about anything like numbers, strings, objects, arrays, etc. There are no restrictions on that. This is different from other languages like C# & Java, where a variable that stores numbers can only store numbers and nothing else.

Declaring the variable

We need to create the variables before using them. In JavaScript, we call it declaring the variable. There are three keywords using which we can declare a variable.

They are

  1. var
  2. let
  3. const

To declare a variable we use the keyword followed by name of the variable that we want to declare.

The following example declares the variable using the keyword var.

The message is the name we have assigned to the variable. It uniquely identifies this variable. Hence, It is also called an Identifier.

Variable creation in JavaScript

You can as well use let here.

Initializing a variable

Initializing a variable means storing an initial value in it before using the variable. To store data, we need to make use of the assignment operator. The assignment operator represented by the symbol equals sign (=) is one of the several JavaScript Operators. We use it to assign a new value to a variable.

We assign a value to a variable by typing its name, followed by an equals sign (assignment operator), followed by the value you want to give it.

The following example stores the literal “Hello” in the variable message immediately after its creation.

Variable declaration in JavaScript

We can combine declaration with initialization in a single line

Variable declaration and initialization in JavaScript

Variable Naming

There are certain rules that you must follow when you choose a name for the variable. The following are the rules for naming the variable

  1. The identifier name must be unique within the scope.
  2. The first letter of an identifier should be a
    1. upper case letter
    2. Lower case letter
    3. underscore
    4. dollar sign
  3. The subsequent letters of an identifier can have
    1. upper case letter
    2. Lower case letter
    3. underscore
    4. dollar sign
    5. numeric digit
  4. We cannot use reserved keywords. You can find the list of keywords for here.
  5. They are case-sensitive. For Example, sayHello is different from SayHello
  6. Cannot use spaces in a identifier name.
  7. You can use Non-Latin letters in a variable name, but it is not recommended
  8. Avoid using the JavaScript Reserved Keywords as identifier name.

valid names

Invalid Names

You can use non-Latin characters in variable names. The following example does not throw any error and is a perfectly valid JavaScript Code. But it makes the code difficult to read for a user who does not know the language.

Updating a variable

You can modify the value of the variable at any time using an assignment. The following example assigns a new value to the message variable.

Declaring Multiple Variable

You can declare multiple variables in a single line each separated by a comma.

You can also span them over multiple lines.

Default Value

JavaScript assigns a default value of undefined when you declare a variable without an initial value.

Example using let

Redeclaring the variable

JavaScript allows us to Re declare a variable only if we declare it with var.

In the following example, we use var to declare the variable message. We later redeclare it. Since the variable message already exists, JavaScript simply ignores the redeclaration. The value of the message variable does not change on redeclaration.

But when we use let either to declare the variable or to redeclare it, then JavaScript throws the Identifier [variable-name] has already been declared error.

Data Types

JavaScript is a loosely typed and dynamic language. The variables are not tied to any particular data type. We can assign and reassign values of all types to any variable

In the following example, we have declared the variable with a string value. But later we reassign a number and an object to it.

Local & Global Variables

JavaScript variables have a lifetime. Their lifetime depends on the scope in which we defined them. It starts when the program enters the scope in which variable is declared and dies when the program leaves the scope.

JavaScript creates a function scope for every function & block scope (since ES6) for every code block ({}). Anything that is outside the function and code block belongs to the global scope.

JavaScript Variables can only be accessed within the scope in which we declare them. The variables present in the global scope can be accessed everywhere.

In the following example, we have globalVar is outside of any function or code block. Hence it is part of the global scope and can be accessed anywhere.

The funcVar variable is declared inside the function. Hence we can access only within the function and not outside of It. Accessing it outside the function will result in funcVar is not defined error.

You can read more about it from the tutorial Scopes in JavaScript

Undeclared Variable

JavaScript throws [variable-name] is not defined error when we try to access a variable that is not yet declared.

But if we assign a value to an undeclared variable, JavaScript automatically creates a global variable. The message variable in the example is not yet declared. But when we assign a value to it JavaScript creates it in the global scope.

Because of the above behavior, you may accidentally create a variable. To Prevent assigning value to an undeclared variable, JavaScript introduced the strict mode in ES5. You can enable that just by adding “use strict” at the top of the code.

The following code throws an error when we try to access message variable.


Accessing an undeclared variable throws an error as shown in the previous section, but JavaScript allows us to use the variable before its declaration. This behavior is known as Hoisting.

In the following example, we use the message variable before its declaration. The code works because JavaScript process the variable declaration before it starts to execute the code.

Hence JavaScript reads the line var message first and creates the variable. The actual execution of the code begins when JavaScript finishes the creation of all variables.

But, if you use let (or const) instead of var, then the JavaScript will throw Cannot access [variable-name] before initialization error.

You can learn more about Hoisting in JavaScript


Storing the Information

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